My favourite book is “The Old Man and the Sea” by Ernest Hemingway. This story is one of the well-known works of the writer. The author depicts the characters of the old man and the boy and their relations very vividly and skillfully. Santiago, the old man, was one of the writer’s beloved characters. The old man was a born fisherman, but he was not a butcher and fished only for a living. He was very lonely. He had a devoted friend – the boy, Manolin. The boy loved the old man for his kind heart, his devotion to the sea. Manolin was like a son to Santiago. He took care of the old man’s food and his belongings. The old man was glad to pass his experience to the boy. He looked forward to going to the sea together with the boy. All Santiago’s life had been in preparation for the battle with big fish. He knew that he had been born for this and it was time to prove it. A strong man at last had met a strong fish. The battle was a difficult one and full of danger. Though the sharks had eaten the fish and nothing had left but the backbone, the old man had morally won the battle. Santiago’s words “man can be destroyed but not defeated” are the main idea of this story. “The Old Man and the Sea” is a masterpiece for its imaginative language and the description of nature.
Lord of the flies by William Golding
A group of schoolboys survive when their plane crashes on an island. Ralph becomes the leader, and the boys work together to build a shelter and gather food and water to stay alive. Jack takes charge of a group hunting animals. Some of the younger children say they have been chased by a strange beast. Jack promises to kill the beast, but Ralph wants to concentrate on getting off the island. Some boys go with Jack, and others stay with Ralph. Here begins a classic battle of good versus evil.
Grammar/gerunds and infinitives
Hometask: ex.2/a,b,e,page 55
2. a. Look at the sentences from the texts on page 54. The missing verbs are followed by a verb in the –ing form (a gerund). Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs.
1. Jane can’t stand living with her evil aunt.
2. Why does the Count avoid seeing Jonathan during the day?
3. Bilbo Baggins enjoys living an ordinary life.
b.The missing verbs in these sentences are followed by to + infinitive. Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs. Use the texts on page 54 to help you.
1. Jane decides to leave the school.
2. Count Dracula wants to buy a house in England.
3. Jack promises to kill the beast.
4. Gollum offers to free Bilbo of he can solve a riddle
Grammar/noun suffixes/ -ation/-ion/-ness/-ment/-ence/-ity/
Homework: 5 (b,c), page 56
b. Look at these common ways of making nouns from verbs and adjectives.
Make nouns from these verbs and adjectives.
c. Complete the sentences with nouns from Exercise 5b.
Listening to music, for me, is the best kind of relaxation that there is.
Madonna is still a very successful singer. Her popularity is enormous.
If you haven’t got much time, make a fruit salad. It doesn’t need a lot of preparation.
My father wanted to buy that car, but he couldn’t come to an agreement about the price with the owner.
I was surprised by her preparation when I told her about the plan.
What did people do for entertainment before TV?
The Function of a Suffix
There are many suffixes used in the English language to create a rich vocabulary. These suffixes change the meaning or grammatical function of a root word. For example, by adding the suffixes -er and -est to the adjective “fond,” you create the comparative “fonder” and the superlative, “fondest.”
Take the suffix -ist, by adding this to a word you have changed the word to describe a person who performs or practices something. So, art becomes artist, a person skilled in a particular art.
Let’s look at the verb “read.” This verb can be turned into a noun by adding the suffix -er, and so “read” becomes “reader.” Likewise, by adding the suffix -able the verb “read” now becomes the adjective “readable.”
Examples of Suffixes
Some of the most common suffixes and their meanings are as follows:
Meaning: engaged in something, associated with something
Examples: auctioneer, volunteer, engineer, profiteer
Meaning: someone who performs an action
Examples: helper, teacher, preacher, dancer
Meaning: the action or process of
Examples: celebration, opinion, decision, revision
Meaning: the state or condition of
Examples: probability, equality, abnormality, civility
Meaning: the action or result of
Examples: movement, retirement, abandonment, establishment
Meaning: a state or quality
Examples: fondness, awareness, kindness, darkness
Meaning: a person who is something
Examples: distributor, investigator, translator, conductor
Meaning: state or being
Examples: depression, confusion, tension, compulsion
Meaning: position held
Examples: worship, ownership, courtship, internship
Meaning: state or quality
Examples: strength, labyrinth, depth, warmth
- -able, -ible
Meaning: capable of being
Examples: preventable, adaptable, predictable, credible
Meaning: pertaining to
Examples: theatrical, natural, criminal, seasonal
Meaning: inclined to or tending to
Examples: vigilant, defiant, brilliant, reliant
Meaning: of or relating to
Examples: budgetary, planetary, military, honorary
Meaning: full of or notable of
Examples: grateful, beautiful, wonderful, fanciful
Meaning: relating to
Examples: iconic, organic, heroic, poetic
- -ious, -ous
Meaning: having qualities of
Examples: gracious, cautious, humorous, fabulous
Meaning: quality or nature of
Examples: creative, expensive, expressive, pensive
Meaning: without something
Examples: hopeless, faultless, fearless, restless
Meaning: made up of or characterized by
Examples: brainy, fruity, tasty, grouchy
Meaning: past-tense version of a verb
Examples: laughed, climbed, called, missed
Examples: soften, fasten, lengthen, strengthen
Meaning: action or process, making an adjective comparative
Examples: faster, bigger, fuller, longer
Meaning: verb form/present participle of an action
Examples: laughing, swimming, driving, writing
- -ize, -ise
Meaning: to cause or to become
Examples: memorialize, authorize, commercialize, advertise
Meaning: in what manner something is being done
Examples: bravely, simply, honestly, gladly
Meaning: in a certain direction
Examples: backward, wayward, awkward, afterward
Meaning: in relation to
Examples: clockwise, edgewise, lengthwise, otherwise
- Don’t smoke.
- Enjoy physical and mental activities every day.
- Eat a healthy diet rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, and substitute healthier monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats for unhealthy saturated fats and trans fats.
- Take a daily multivitamin, and be sure to get enough calcium and vitamin D.
- Maintain a healthy weight and body shape.
- Challenge your mind. Keep learning and trying new activities.
- Build a strong social network.
- Follow preventive care and screening guidelines.
- Floss, brush, and see a dentist regularly.
- Ask your doctor if medication can help you control the potential long-term side effects of chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, osteoporosis, or high cholesterol.
If you will read and lead this facts you will be healthy and live very long.
I wish everybody to be happy and health
Every of as know how important is Christmas in many countries in the world. Everybody has his own Christmas traditions and now I will tell you about them. When the New year comes all the members f our family sit around the table and wait. After that we open our presents and have fun. Some times on Christmas days my parents, my brother and I go on holidays to Tsagkatsor to play with snow. I think that the most important is the time which we spent with our family.
There was a legend that in an old town lived a poor family. It consisted of four members parents and their children. When the eldest son grew up he understood that he wanted to help poor children and make them happier. But his little brother was not thinking like he was. He wanted everybody to be sad.Many years later they became enemies and started to fight with each other. They took wonderful names big brother took name Santa Clause which meant Happy X-Mas. Little brother became a monster because he hadn’t heart and took name kinderkrampus which meant sad childhood. And they are steel fighting since today
John is writing a letter. – What is John writing?
She walks home from school. – Who walks home from school?
The children are sitting in the garden. – Where are the children sitting.
Peter runs with his dog on Sundays. – When does Peter run with his dog?
My rabbit has a cage in the garden. – Where does your rabbit have a cage?
They go to work by bus. – How do they go to work?
David likes cats because they are nice. – Why does David like cats?
Jenny isn’t sleeping late today. – Who isn’t sleeping late today?
We are going to the cinema. – Where are you going?
I’m leaving now. – When are you leaving?
- Why were ball games not always allowed by law?
Because people got so excited that they would leave their workplace to watch the game. Also, because their were no soccer fields, people played in streets, which was dangerous.
When were the football rules published?
The soccer rules were published in 1863.
Did they change within the time?
The rules were changed in 1878, 1891 and 1925.
How many players are there in a team?
There are eleven players in a team.
What are they?
One goalkeeper, one full-back, one half-back and eight forwards.
Do you know the name of a game which is similar to football but players can hold the ball in their hands?
- Were the thieves caught?
Are the tests always written in the language lab?
Will my apology be accepted?
Are eagles found in Alaska?
Was the Eiffel Tower built for the World Exhibition in 1889?
Will the workers be replaced by computers?
Can beans and carrots be cooked together?
Was the accident seen by the police yesterday?
Where was the first underground railway opened?
Are the books going to be returned to the school?
- The words were explained by the teacher today.
We sent a letter the day before yesterday.
This car won’t be stolen, it’s too old.
The street is already closed because of snow.
A new restaurant will open next week.
He was invited to the party yesterday.
The blue box can’t be seen.
I gave the book by my friend last Sunday.
The dishes aren’t washed by my little brother.
I will not be asked by Robert.
- Are cars made in Hong Kong?
Has she been taken to the hospital?
Can the potatoes be roasted in five minutes?
Will the students be prepared for the exam?’
When will the tea be served?
Is lunch being provided today?
Were laptops given to them last week?
May the videos be broadcasted?
Has the road been closed for repairs?
Was he asked by the teacher yesterday?
There are many jobs now. But I think that most popular and wonderful job is engineering and programming. I actually will become an engineer programmer. I will make new devices. Now I will explain you why is this work so popular. Every of us has his own phone or a computer. We use our everyday life. And many scientists think, that in the future It jobs will be very important.